Unit 2. English - Speaking Countries

I. Reading and Speaking. Great Britain

1. Read and learn the vocabulary:

  • bagpipe – волынка;
  • castle – замок;
  • climb – подниматься, взбираться;
  • coal – уголь;
  • coal-mining – угледобывающий;
  • differ from – отличаться от;
  • diverse – разнообразный, разный;
  • event – событие;
  • fabulous – легендарный, невероятный;
  • fertile – плодородный;
  • hospitality – гостеприимство, радушие;
  • landscape – ландшафт, пейзаж;
  • loch – шотл. озеро;
  • moorland – местность, поросшая вереском, вересковая пустошь;
  • plain – равнина;
  • porridge – (овсяная) каша;
  • responsible – ответственный;
  • steady – надежный, постоянный, установившийся;
  • tartan – клетчатая шерстяная материя, шотландка;
  • valley – долина;
  • witness – свидетель.

2. Read a short extract about English pubs and insert necessary prepositions.

over, in, on, to, for, after, by, of__________________________ For company and conversation the English go _____the pub. The cafes _____ England sell only coffee, tea and soft drinks You go ____ a cafe _____ a meal or a quick cup ____ tea, but not to sit and watch the world go ____ When you want to relax _____a day’s work, you go ______ the local pub. Nearly everyone drinks beer. Most pubs ______ fact, have a piano and ______ Saturday night the customers may gather round it and sing The songs they sing are the same all _______ England. They are very easy to learn.

3. Translate into English. You will find all the underlined words in the active vocabulary list.

  1. Название «Британия» происходит от названия одного из кельтских племен.
  2. Одно из главных событий британской истории произошло в 55 году до н. э., когда Юлий Цезарь начал завоевывать Британию.
  3. В Великобритании можно найти почти все виды ландшафтов: горные районы, плодородные равнины, вересковые пустоши, крутые берега.
  4. Лондон - одна из самых красивых столиц мира, которая славится своим гостеприимством
  5. В Бирмингеме есть несколько впечатляющих соборов и замок, построенный в XVI-м веке.
  6. Все туристы, приезжающие в Шотландию, обязательно хотят послушать волынку и попробовать настоящий виски.
  7. Многие шотландцы верят в существование невероятного чудовища, которое живет в озере Несс.
  8. Ливерпуль – один из крупнейших портов мира Сегодня это большой и современный город с разноплановой (разнообразной) архитектурой.

4. Read the text and be ready for comprehension check-up.

Great Britain

Welcome to England, the land of fabulous and diverse landscape, mysterious castles, witnesses to many historical events, charming nature and wonderful hospitality. If one wants to sum up the British character, the most suitable word to use is steady. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland with an area of some 244000 square miles is situated on the British Isles which are separated from the European continent by the North Sea, the Strait of Dover and the English Channel The UK is a monarchy: the head of the state is a king or a queen. In practice the Sovereign reigns, but it doesn’t rule: the UK is governed by the Government – a body of Ministers who are the leading members of the political party in power and who are responsible to Parliament. The present Sovereign is Queen Elizabeth II.

Scotland is the land of mountains lost in clouds, wild moorlands, narrow valleys and plains, famous lochs and numerous islands off the coast. It is the land of Robert Bums, tartans, bagpipes, porridge and Scotch whisky. One third of its people live in or near its capital, Edinburgh, and its great industrial center, Glasgow.

The smallest of Britain’s countries is Wales. The larger part of Wales is covered with rocky mountains which are very difficult to climb Most of its inhabitants live in coastal plains, in the deep green valleys and in the coal-mining and industrial areas of South Wales.

The heart of Britain is England. It is the richest, the most fertile and most populated of the country. The north and the west of England are mountainous, but all the rest of the territory is a vast plain. In north-west England there are many beautiful lakes with green, wooded or grassy shores and gray mountains all around. It is called Lake District.

Great Britain is a highly developed industrial country. One of the leading industries in Great Britain is the textile industry. Coal, iron and steel, as well as various machines are also produced there. Shipbuilding and motor industry are highly developed too.

There are many industrial cities in Britain such as Birmingham and Sheffield (with big iron and steel works), Manchester and Liverpool (the biggest centers of textile industry), Cardiff and others. London, the capital city of the UK is one of the biggest commercial centers and ports of the world. It’s also an important political, cultural and educational center. Other educational centers in Great Britain are Oxford and Cambridge with the world famous oldest universities. The total population of Great Britain today is about 59 million people. The official

language of the country is English, though in Wales people speak Welsh, which is different from English, while the Scottish dialect differs little from English. There are many other languages spoken in Britain, as it has become now a multinational state.

5. Answer the following questions and try to use as many details from the text as possible.

  1. What word does the author suggest to use to sum up the British character? Do you agree? (Why or why not.)
  2. What can be said about the political system of the United Kingdom?
  3. What part of Britain is described as “a land of mountains, lost in clouds”? What is the name of the poet, who devoted many of his poems to this land?
  4. Say a few words about each of Britain’s four parts. Which one do you find to be the most interesting and attractive? Explain your choice.
  5. What are the most highly developed industries in the country?
  6. What important industrial and cultural centers do you know in Great Britain?
  7. What languages are spoken in different parts of the country?

6. Read the following short texts about the most popular games in Britain:

Cricket developed in England over several centuries. As in soccer, there are numerous amateur clubs and school teams. First class professional cricket clubs represent counties and play three-day matches against each other. Cricket is an English game. It is played little in Scotland and Ireland and there is only one first class club in Wales. However, it has become immensely popular throughout the Commonwealth. Test matches are played between England, Australia, the West Indies, India, New Zealand, etc. In the late 1970s English Test cricketers began to earn "start'' salaries. Cricketers also began to wear helmets and thick padding around their chests to protect them against blows from the ball.

Football is the most popular team game in Britain. The British invented it and it has spread to every comer of the world. There is no British team. England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland compete separately in European and World Cup matches. The English and Welsh clubs have together formed a League with four divisions. The Scottish League has three divisions. The champions of the English First Division and the Scottish Premier Division qualify to play in the European Cup competition.

7. Complete the following sentences using information from the texts:

  • Cricket developed in England ...
  • First class professional cricket clubs represent...
  • Test matches in cricket are played ...
  • English Test cricketers began to earn ... and to wear ...
  • Football is ... in Britain.
  • The English and Welsh League has ..., and the Scottish League ... divisions.

8. Complete the following text with the correct derivatives of the words given in brackets.

Britain’s railway network has (recent) been experiencing a new kind of problem.

It is neither technical nor _____ (mechanic), but could, nevertheless, lead to ____ (injure) unless it receives immediate _______(attend). It appears that rabbits have been digging their holes under railway tracks, which ______ (fortunate) means that the tracks are at risk of collapsing. The _____(soft) of the earth under the tracks makes it a ______(suit) place for rabbits to dig their holes. Numerous areas have already experienced problems, causing delays to railway service.

II. Reading and speaking. The USA

1. Read and learn the vocabulary:

  • attraction – привлекательность
  • coast – побережье
  • connect – связывать, соединять
  • custom – обычай
  • desert – пустыня
  • endless – бесконечный
  • exciting – захватывающий, волнующий
  • feature – черта
  • Grand Canyon – Большой Каньон
  • Great Lakes – Великие Озера
  • pot – горшок, котелок
  • melting pot – плавильный котел
  • plain – равнина; pi. прерии
  • rocky – скалистый
  • save – спасать, сохранять
  • scene – сцена, место действия
  • size – размер
  • skyscraper – небоскреб

2. Fill in the gaps in the text with the words given below.

seasons, Grand Canyon (2), tourist, long, plants, dry, animals, deep, years, size, forests

The 1_____is one of America’s main 2_____ attractions. It is so big, that you must go there yourself to feel its true 3_____and beauty. The Colorado River formed the 4_____ over millions of 5_____. Today the canyon is one mile 6_____and 277 miles 7_____ . It’s interesting that there are different kinds of 8_____and 9______on opposite sides of the canyon. The south side is 10_____and desert country. The north side has tall 11_____ The canyon looks different at different times of day, and in different 12_____and weather.

3. Read the text.

The United States o f America

The United States of America is a federal union of 50 states, with the District of Columbia as the seat of the national government. Two of these states, Alaska (the largest) and Hawaii (the smallest), are not connected to the other states. The US is washed by the Pacific Ocean in the west, by the Atlantic Ocean in the east, by the Caribbean Sea and the Gulf of Mexico in the south. In the north are Great Lakes.

The US has almost every kind of weather. Also, it has many kinds of land – rocky coasts, dry empty deserts, powerful rivers, wide plains, lakes of all sizes, high mountains, forests, sunny beaches and lands of endless winter.

More than 250 million people live in the US. Americans have tried to save many of the most beautiful wild areas of the United States. There are a lot of parks, forests and wildlands where you can enjoy the beauty and power of wild America. The Grand Canyon, Yosemite Valley and Yellowstone are among the most famous.

Many rivers cross the United States. But the greatest is the Mississippi. Native Americans called it ‘the father of waters’. The Mississippi has been an important waterway since early times, when native Americans traveled on the river in canoes. Among the other big rivers are the Colorado and the Missouri.

The United States is a young country. Its written history is only a few hundred years old. It is sometimes, in fact, called the ‘New World’. Over the last four hundred years millions of people have come to start a new life in this ‘New World’.

Americans are not afraid of new ideas. A typical feature of American scene is the skyscraper with more than 100 floors. The Sears Tower in Chicago, Illinois is the tallest. Americans have also put the first man on the Moon. They like to be modem They like exciting modern cities, new houses and new cars. In fact, it’s a nation on wheels.

The people of the United States are a mixture of many different nationalities. Every American schoolchild learns that the US is the big ‘melting pot’ of countries. In a melting pot, different metals are melted together to make a new one. The United States is like a melting pot for people. In the past people from different European countries came to the US and made one country out of many. In one city you can find people whose parents, grandparents or great-grandparents came from China, Africa, South America, Southeast Asia and every European country. These different people brought to their new land a wonderful mixture of customs and traditions. The Germans brought Christmas trees. The Irish brought St. Patrick’s Day celebrations. The Scots brought Halloween.

4. Answer the following questions and try to use as many details from the text as possible.

  • What can be said about the geographical position of the USA?
  • What is the population of the US?
  • Name the largest and the smallest states of the country. How many names of the American states do you remember?
  • What are the main rivers of the country?
  • Why is the US called the “New World”?
  • What is mentioned as the typical feature of American scene?
  • Why is it often said that the USA is a melting pot for people? Do you agree with it?

5. Read the following extract Divide it into paragraphs and punctuate it.

America's greatest holiday – Independence Day – takes place on the 4th of July on this day Americans celebrate the day in 1776 when the American colonies declared themselves free from British rule preparations begin about a week before the actual day red white and blue flags are hung on the public buildings and banners are raised all over the town as everyone waits anxiously for the big parade on the day of events spectators line the streets the thumping sound of drums can be heard as the marching band comes along first followed by boy scouts and girl scouts who march waving American flag police officers firefighters and local officials stride past while the crowd cheers enthusiastically.

6. A. Nowadays many people want to leave countries where they were born and to emigrate abroad. Imagine that you are taking part in writing a leaflet for people who want to leave for the USA. Your task is to give useful information about this country. Think what points it’s necessary to include and which ones can be dropped out You can And the approximate plan below.

  • – geographical position
  • – climatic conditions
  • – population
  • – language
  • – nationalities living in the country
  • – characteristic features

B. What is your point of view on immigration/emigration? Do you think a person can feel at home in any other place except his/her home country? What are the general immigration trends in the modern world? Which country seems to be the most attractive one for the immigrants? Why? Which is the most difficult thing to get used to in a new country for you? Share your opinion.

Language Practice:

7. Which of the words below can you use to describe:

a) the buildings and architecture of a town? ___________________________

b) the atmosphere of a town? ____________________________

skyscraper, noisy, romantic, bridge, concrete, picturesque, cathedral, lively, fountain, exciting, square, old-fashioned, sophisticated, baroque, modem, busy, dirty, palace, sleepy, skyline, dangerous, industrial, wealthy, vertical, suburb, low, cosmopolitan, gothic, town hall, tall, tower, glass, big, block, hustle-and-bustle.

8. Find an odd word.

  1. bear, deer, raven, squirrel, bison;
  2. the City, Downtown, Westminster, the West End, the East End;
  3. dull, boring, gloomy, perfect, dirty;
  4. Boston, the Thames, London, Scotland, Cambridge;
  5. Fortress, palace, castle, cathedral, skyscraper;
  6. The Home Office, Treasury, the War Office, the post-office, the Admiralty.

9. Read the following sentences about Great Britain and the USA and translate the words in brackets.

  1. The city of Oxford is home to the most famous university in the world. It is a 1_____ (идеальное) place to study and it is among the finest in Europe.
  2. Warwick is a 2_____(место) where the famous castle stands above the waters of the River Avon.
  3. If you are 3_____(направляетесь) to the Tower of London, you will certainly see the (ворон) black which are among its most famous sights.
  4. n some American cities past and present come together and make a 5_____(смесь), that's hard to find anywhere in the Old World.
  5. You can 6____ (изучить) a huge skyscraper in Downtown San Francisco and see the reflection of an ancient church in its glass walls.

Grammar Practice

1. Use Past Simple of the verbs given in brackets.

  1. Tom isn’t playing tennis tomorrow afternoon, he ___________(not/ play) tennis yesterday.
  2. We generally have lunch at 12.30, but yesterday we ___________(have lunch) later.
  3. Now my brother smokes a lot, but he _____________(not/ smoke) before.
  4. The Smirnovs live in a four-room apartment, but last year they __________(live) in a small house in the country.
  5. I don’t eat meat at all, but the other day I visited my friends and __________(eat) pork there.
  6. My Dad always goes to work by car, but last week he ___________(go) to work on foot.

2. Use Present, Past or Future Simple of the verb “to be”.

  1. My father _______ a teacher.
  2. He _______a pupil twenty years ago.
  3. I ________ a doctor when I grow up.
  4. My sister _______ not at home tomorrow.
  5. She _________at school tomorrow.
  6. ______you______ at home tomorrow?
  7. ______your father at work yesterday?
  8. My sister _______ ill last week.
  9. She _______ not ill now.
  10. Yesterday we_______at the theatre.

3. Use Present Continuous of the verbs given in brackets.

  1. The old man ____________(to walk) about the room.
  2. I _____________(to do) my homework.
  3. John and his friends ____________(to go) to the library.
  4. Ann _____________(to sit) at her desk. She ___________(to study) geography.
  5. A young man ___________(to stand) at the window. He ___________(to smoke) a cigarette.
  6. The dog ____________(to lie) on the floor.
  7. ______you ___________(to have) a break?
  8. What language _____you__________ (to study)?

4. Use Present Simple or Present Continuous of the verbs given in brackets.

  1. I ____________(to read) books in the evening.
  2. I _____________(not to read) books in the morning.
  3. I ______________(to write) an exercise now.
  4. I ______________(not to write) a letter now.
  5. They _________________(to play) in the yard now.
  6. They __________________(not to play) in the street now.
  7. __________they _________(to play) in the room now?
  8. He __________________(to help) his mother every day.
  9. _________he ___________(to help) his mother every day?
  10. He ___________________(not to help) his mother every day.

5. Use Present Continuous or Past Continuous.

  1. I _____________(to write) an English exercise now.
  2. I ________________(to write) an English exercise at this time yesterday.
  3. My little sister ___________(to sleep) now.
  4. My little sister __________(to sleep) at this time yesterday.
  5. My friends ____________(not to do) their homework now. They _________(to play) volleyball.
  6. My friends ___________(not to do) their homework at seven o'clock yesterday. They _________(to play) volleyball.
  7. _______you ________(to eat) ice-cream now?
  8. ______you________(to eat) ice-cream when I rang you up yesterday?
  9. What_____ your father_________ (to do) now?
  10. What _______your father _________(to do) from eight till nine yesterday?

6. Use Past Simple or Past Continuous.

  1. I ____________(to play) computer games yesterday.
  2. I ____________(to play) computer games at five o'clock yesterday.
  3. He __________(to play) computer games from two till three yesterday.
  4. We ___________(to play) computer games the whole evening yesterday.
  5. What _______Nick__________ (to do) when you came to his place?
  6. What _________you__________ (to do) when I rang you up?
  7. I _________(not to sleep) at nine o'clock yesterday.
  8. He ____________(to sit) at the table the whole evening yesterday.

7. Change the tense of the verbs into Present Perfect.

  1. I am eating my breakfast.
  2. We are drinking water.
  3. He is bringing them some meat and vegetables.
  4. You are putting the dishes on the table.
  5. They are having tea.
  6. She is taking the dirty plates from the table.
  7. The children are putting on their coats.
  8. Use Present Perfect or Past Simple.
  9. I already ______________(to do) my homework. Now I can go for a walk.
  10. I ____________(to do) my homework yesterday.
  11. He_________just ________(to come) home.
  12. He __________(to come) home a minute ago.
  13. Nick__________ (to play) football yesterday.
  14. She____already______(to come) from school. Now she is doing her homework.
  15. I ____________(to read) this book last year.
  16. I __________(to read) this book this year.
  17. I _________never_________ (to be) to Washington.
  18. ________you ever ___________(to be) to New York?
  19. ________you ever_________ (to see) the eruption of a volcano?
  20. I ____________(not yet to eat) today.

9. Use Past Simple or Past Perfect.

  1. When I ______(to come) home, mother______already_______ (to cook) dinner.
  2. When father _____(to return) from work, we _____already______ (to do) our homework.
  3. When the teacher __________(to enter) the classroom, the pupils ______already_____ (to open) their books.
  4. Kate _______(to give) me the book which she ________(to buy) the day before.
  5. Nick_______ (to show) the teacher the picture which he_______(to draw).
  6. The boy ________(to give) the goats the grass which he __________(to bring) from the field.
  7. Mother ______(to see) that Nick _________(not to wash) his hands.
  8. The teacher _________(to understand) that Lena _________(not to do) her homework.
  9. I __________(to know) that my friend __________(not yet to come).
  10. Tom __________(to return) from the cinema at five o'clock.
  11. Tom __________(to return) from the cinema by five o'clock.
  12. I ____________(to finish) my homework at seven o'clock.

10. Complete the sentences using Present Simple, Past Simple, Future Simple; Present Continuous, Past Continuous; Present Perfect, Past Perfect.

It was eight o'clock in the morning and time for me to go to work. I 1)_________(to look) out of the window. It 2) __________(to rain) hard. "You 3)_________ (to get) wet through if you 4)____________ (to go) out now," said my mother. I answered, "I 5)__________(to take) an umbrella." We 6)_________(to have) five umbrellas in the house, but when I 7)____________(to want) to take one, I 8)_________(to find) that there 9) _________(to be) not one that I could use: they all 10) __________(to be) torn or broken. So I 11) _______(to take) them all and 12) _________(to carry) them to the umbrella-maker, saying that I would call for the umbrellas on my way home in the evening. When I 13)______ (to go) to have lunch in the afternoon, it still 14)_________(to rain) very hard. I 15)_________(to go) to the nearest cafe, and 16)_________(to sit) down at a table. A few minutes later a young woman 17)_________(to come) in and 18) ________(to sit) down at the same table with me. When I 19) _________(to finish) my lunch and 20) ________(to be) ready to leave, I absent-mindedly 21) _______(to take) her umbrella and (to start) for the exit. She 22)_________(to stop) me saying that I 23)__________(to take) her umbrella. I 24)___________(to return) the umbrella with many apologies. In the evening I 25)_______(to go) to the umbrella-maker, 26)_______(to take) my five umbrellas and 27) ________(to get) on the tram to go home. It so happened that the woman I 28) _________(to meet) at the cafe 29)________(to ride) in the same tram. When she 30 _________(to see) me with my five umbrellas, she 31)_________(to say): "You 32) _________(to have) a successful day today, 33) _________(to have not) you?"

11. Use Present, Past or Future Simple Passive.

  1. Bread __________ (to eat) every day.
  2. The letter ________________(to receive) yesterday.
  3. Nick_____________(to send) to Moscow next week.
  4. I _______________(to ask) at the lesson yesterday.
  5. I ______________(to give) a very interesting book at the library last Friday.
  6. Many houses ______________(to build) in our town every year.
  7. This work _________________(to do) tomorrow.
  8. This text ________________(to translate) at the last lesson.
  9. These trees ____________________(to plant) last autumn.
  10. Many interesting games always ________________(to play) at our PT lessons.
  11. This bone _________________(to give) to my dog tomorrow.
  12. We ____________(to invite) to a concert last Saturday.
  13. My question ______________(to answer) yesterday.
  14. Hockey _______________(to play) in winter.
  15. Mushrooms ____________(to gather) in autumn.
  16. Many houses _____________(to burn) during the Great Fire of London.
  17. His new book _____________(to finish) next year.
  18. Flowers _____________(to sell) in shops and in the streets.
  19. St. Petersburg ____________(to found) in 1703.

12. Change Active Voice into Passive.

E.g. Mother waters the flowers in the evening. — The flowers are watered in the evening (by Mother).

  1. A marble pavilion protects the house.
  2. The boys will paint the roof of the house.
  3. Tom Sawyer whitewashed the fence.
  4. Her daughters gave her three beautiful dishes as a birthday present.
  5. Tom gave Nick a book for his birthday.
  6. Our mother tells us stories every evening.
  7. Lydia will show you a new book of pictures.

13. Put the verb in brackets in the correct tense.

One summer morning Meeks (come) 1)________from the West to New York to find his sister. She (be) 2)________ Mrs. Mary Snyder, a widow, aged 52, who (live) 3)__________for a year in a tenement house in a crowed district.

At her address somebody (tell) 4)_______him that Mary (move) 5)________away longer than a month before. No one (can/tell) 6)_______him her new address.

On coming out of the house Mr. Meeks (address) 7)________a policeman who (stand) 8)________on the corner, and (explain) 9)__________his difficulty to him. “I (recently/make) 10)___________a lot of money and I’d like to help Mary as soon as possible”, he (add) 11)_________. The policeman (pull) 12)________ his moustache and (tell) 13)_________Meeks about Juggins. He (say) 14)_______ that Juggins (be) 15)_________ the leader of a new school detectives. “Juggins (solve) 16)_______some very difficult cases. I (take) 17)______ you to him”, the policeman said.

“If I (find) 18)______your sister, you (pay) 19)_______ me two hundred dollars. I (try) 20)_______ to solve your case. The disappearance of people in the city is the most interesting problem I (ever, work at) 21)________”, (say) 22)______the famous detective, (rise) 23)________ and (put) 24) his hat.

In fifteen minutes Juggins (return) 25)______ holding a little piece of paper with Mary’s new address. After Meeks (pay) 26)________ his bill, he (ask) 27)________ the detective to explain what he (do) 28)________.

14. Use Passive Voice.

  1. At the last competition the first prize ___________(to win) by our team.
  2. The question __________ (to settle) as soon as they arrived.
  3. Your report must ______________(to divide) into two chapters.
  4. Soon he _____________(to send) to a sanatorium.
  5. The book ____________(to discuss) at the next conference.
  6. The composition must _____________(to hand) in on Wednesday.
  7. Yesterday he _____________(to tell) to prepare a speech.
  8. The article ____________(to publish) last week, if I am not mistaken.
  9. The lectures ________________(to attend) by all of us.
  10. A taxi __________(to call) fifteen minutes ago, so we are expecting it any moment.