CONTENTS

 

TITLE PAGE

UNIT 1 QUALITY PLANNING

UNIT 2 QUALITY CONTROL

UNIT 3 QUALITY IMPROVEMENT

UNIT 4. PRICE AND QUALITY

UNIT 5. PRODUCTION COST VS QUALITY

UNIT 6. QUALITY MANAGEMENT TEAM

UNIT 7. HUMAN RESOURCES AND QUALITY

FINAL TEST

REFERENCES & RESOURCES

Unit 3. QUALITY IMPROVEMENT

Reading: Toyota Production System

Video: Quality Improvement in Healthcare    

Grammar: Participle

Career Skills: Company Information

Dilemma: Applying for a Quality Improvement Manager Job

 

Keynotes:

Improving  quality in your business typically results in increased customer and employee satisfaction. Using quality management system techniques such as process mapping, benchmarking and cost-benefit analysis, you can achieve regular improvement in all your work-flow processes. Improved productivity results in fewer defects, fewer delays and reduced costs.

 

 

Preview:

 

1. Discuss the questions with a partner.

 

1. What tools for quality improving do you know?

2. Are there any methods for stimulation the staff to improve their work quality?

3. Have you ever heard about the annual Russian Government Quality Award?

 

2. Read the information below and make the steps in the right order.

 

How to Improve Productivity & Quality

 

1) Step 1

a) Develop performance measurements. Benchmark your current processes, identify problems, predict future outcomes and measure productivity gains using key performance indicators for your industry. For example, measure quality and productivity in your customer support center by measuring the time it takes to resolve customer issues and the customer satisfaction rate for those support cases.

2) Step 2

b) Use business strategies such as Six Sigma to improve quality and productivity. Create projects that define a problem, measure the current process, gather relevant data and analyze the data to validate the cause-and-effect relations. Determine the root cause of issues and design interventions to improve or optimize the processes. Control production so that defects get corrected early on before they impact your final product.

3) Step 3

c) Analyze your processes. Focus not on the people performing the job but on the tasks they do. Standardize policies and procedures through your company to maximize efficiency. Train all personnel adequately so they can produce high-quality products and take pride in their work.

4) Step 4

d) Value employee, customer, supplier and business partner feedback and input regarding solving product or service problems. Measure quality and productivity gains by increases in customer satisfaction. Use customer feedback to improve current products and influence the design of new ones. Leveraging customer requirements in your process redesign efforts can help you focus your efforts on the most lucrative areas of business in your industry. For example, conduct surveys or focus groups to gather information to resolve top issues with your product or service. Prepare a report summarizing findings, and distribute the report throughout your organization to improve quality and productivity.

5) Step 5

e) Build quality testing into your processes – not at the end when it is more expensive to fix. Perform testing on an iterative basis. Resolve defective component problems as you encounter them without waiting for the entire testing cycle to complete. Implement automated testing if possible, because it executes without human intervention and results in a pass or fail outcome that is easy to interpret and act upon.

6) Step 6

f) Align your business processes with other companies in your industry.

 

Reading:

 

1. You are going to read a text about the Toyota production system. Before you read, check that you understand these important words. Match the words to the definitions.

 

1. rigid

a) the situation of being successful and having a lot of money

2. to impose

b) a basic or essential feature that gives something its character

3. flexibility

c) the particular way in which you deal with someone

4. treatment

d) without difficulty, problems, or delays

5. prosperity

e) the process of getting rid of something that is not wanted or needed

6. elimination

f) to force someone to have the same opinion, belief, etc as you

7. to overburden

g) the ability to make changes or to deal with a situation that is changing

8. inherent

h) continuing or developing steadily in the same way

9. smoothly

i) methods, systems etc are very strict and difficult to change

10. consistent

j) to give someone more work or problems than they can deal with

 

Toyota Production System

 

The practical expression of Toyota's people and customer-oriented philosophy is known as the Toyota Production System (TPS). This is not a rigid company-imposed procedure but a set of principles that have been proven in day-to-day practice over many years. Many of these ideas have been adopted and imitated all over the world.
TPS has three
desired outcomes:

- To provide the customer with the highest quality vehicles, at lowest possible cost, in a timely manner with the shortest possible lead times.

- To provide members with work satisfaction, job security and fair treatment.

- It gives the company flexibility to respond to the market, achieve profit through cost reduction activities and long-term prosperity.

TPS strives for the absolute elimination of waste, overburden and unevenness in all areas to allow members to work smoothly and efficiently. The foundations of TPS are built on standardisation to ensure a safe method of operation and a consistent approach to quality. Toyota members seek to continually improve their standard processes and procedures in order to ensure maximum quality, improve efficiency and eliminate waste. This is known as kaizen and is applied to every sphere of the company's activities.

Like all mass-production systems, the Toyota process requires that all tasks, both human and mechanical, be very precisely defined and standardised to ensure maximum quality, eliminate waste and improve efficiency.

Toyota members have a responsibility not only to follow closely these standardised work guidelines but also to seek their continual improvement. This is simply common sense – since it is clear that inherent inefficiencies or problems in any procedure will always be most apparent to those closest to the process.

The day-to-day improvements that Members and their Team Leaders make to their working practices and equipment are known as kaizen. But the term also has a wider meeting: it means a continual striving for improvement in every sphere of the Company's activities – from the most basic manufacturing process to serving the customer and the wider community beyond.

 

2. Discuss these questions in pairs.

 

1. What do you know about Toyota Motor Corporation?

2. What does Toyota Production System mean?

3. What aims does it have?

4. Toyota members must follow closely the standardised work guidelines, don’t they?

5. What does kaizen mean?

 

Speaking:

 

Make a report on one of these topics:

 

1. Deming’s principles of quality improvement.

2. Juran’s  principles of quality improvement.

3. Crosby’s principles of quality improvement.

 

Video: Quality Improvement in Healthcare

 

1. You are going to watch a film about quality improvement in healthcare system. After watching the film, answer the questions below.

 

1. How can we use QI to make healthcare better?

2. What does system thinking mean?

3. What three questions occur during the QI process?

4. How does the author answer them in the situation with hand washing in hospitals?

5. How does the Model for Improvements look like?

6. What does innovation fatigue mean?

7. Are there any problems in Russian Healthcare system? Can you think of any solutions?

 

2. Fill in the gaps to make phrases used in the video.

 

1. translate the science of building better cars or electronics to __________.

2. constant __________ about the world.

3. Berwick and his colleagues challenged hundreds of US hospitals to __________ __________.

4. __________ we are making lead to an improvement.

5. __________ about change is normal .

6. they identified health and lifestyle challenges from the _________ __________.

 

Grammar: Participle

 

1. Study the information about participle in the table below. Do the grammar activities following this table.

 

Participle

 

Present Participle (verb -ing)

Past Participle (3-d form of a verb)

Participles can be used as adjectives or adverbs.

►When present participles –ing are used like adjectives or adverbs, they are active in meaning.

►When past participles -edare used like adjectives or adverbs, they are passive in meaning.

When we use these adjectives to describe how someone feels about something:

the -ing adjectives describe thesomething”
A surprising result.
It's a pleasing decision.

the -ed adjectives describe thesomeone”
I was surprised.
I'm pleased with the result.

Most of these participle adjectivescan be used before the noun they describe or following linking verbs.

It was an interesting design.
The goods tests results were pleasing.

A refurbished tool can be found over there.
My boss appeared delighted with the tests results.

We often form compound adjectives with a participle following a noun, adverb, or another adjective, and connected by a hyphen.

We suppose it will be a money-saving package.       
A worried-looking manager left the laboratory.

This is a well-planned building..
The newly-designed pack has returned interest to the product.

When the relative pronoun is the subject of the clause we often reduce the relative clause by using the participle form of the verb only

the man (who was) designing ...
the present participle (e.g. designing) is active
►Present participles can also be used after a connecting word or phrase instead of using the complete continuous tense.
When you are going to a lab, remember to check that you have put laboratory clothing on.
When going to a lab, remember to check that you have put laboratory clothing on.

►Present participles can describe:
- two actions that happen at the same time;
She sat near the window reading a scientific report.
- two actions that happen one after another.
Opening the book, he found a necessary article.

the analysis (which was) carried out …
the past participle (e.g. carried out) is passive.
►We sometimes use the past participle instead of the passive.
Preserved many years ago, that vegetables were not safe to eat.   (That vegetables were preserved ...)
Although produced years ago, the package was in good order. (Although the package was produced ...)
If approved by a manager, that kind of package will be represented to our clients.
(If the package is approved ...)

►When we want to emphasize that one thing happened before another, we can use a perfect participle for the earlier action. The participle phrase can come before or after the main clause.
Having turned off the music, I was able to concentrate on reading.
(= After I had turned off the music, ...)
I was able to concentrate on reading,
having turned off the music.
►The perfect participle can also describe reasons or causes as these usually come before a result
Having forgotten to take the documents, I had to come back for them in a while.
(= Because I had forgotten to take, ...)

►We often use a being + past participle instead of past participle
The tests being carried out are sponsored by Microsoft. (or The tests that are being carried out ...)
Instead of: I was lost, so I had to ask someone the way.
We can say: Being lost, I had to ask someone the way.
►Sometimes, however, we can't use a past participle or being + past participle clause.
- when there is a noun between the relative pronoun and the verb in the defining relative clause.
- when the defining relative clause includes a modal verb other than will.

 

2. Put the verbs in brackets into participle I or participle II forms. Note the difference.

Ex.: _______ managers (shock):  shocked managers

 

1. a _______ program (test)

2. _______ goods (test)

3. a _______ contract (sign)

4. a _______ consumer (please)

5. ________ vendors (surprise)

6. an _______ promotion (excite)

7. an _______ promoter (excite)

8. ________ companies (compete)

9. a _______ product (launch)

 

3. Make a compound adjective out of the underlined phrase.

Ex.: He thought that the Project Coordinator had a peculiarly sinister mind. – He was sinister-minded.

 

1. She suggested a clever plan to save money.

2. These tests have lasted a long time.

3. She writes with her left hand.

4. The priceof the package was high.

 

4. Rewrite these sentences using the present participle.

Ex.: Appert developed a method for preserving foods and won a prize of 12,000 francs. –
Appert won a prize of 12,000 francs for developing a method for preserving foods.

 

1. If you are trying to use the whole available space, you may need a palletized unit load.

2. There are many people in organization who take part in this project.

3.  He was learning at school when he decided that he wanted to become a packaging development engineer.

4. He was working in the USA when he invented the most successful chemical packaging.

5. The person who is speaking now is our new Project team Leader.

 

5. Rewrite these sentences using the past participle.

Ex.: Carton containers that were used for packaging liquids appeared in the 19th century. Carton containers, used for packaging liquids, appeared in the 19th century.

 

1. The units that are usually used to ship inner packages are called transport packages.

2. A package which is directed toward a consumer must be eye-catching.

3. Packaging may be discussed in relation to the type of product being packaged and be subdivides into “medical device packaging”, “bulk chemical packaging” etc.

4. Tertiary packaging is used to group packages together. It is always convenient for handling and transportation.

5. If this kind of packaging is accepted by the Board of Directors, it will be produced by our company.

 

6. Rewrite these sentences using present participle or past participle forms.

 

1. After the product was examined by the lab group, it was considered to be appropriate.

2. The bottle that stands on the table is our new package model for Cola Company.

3. The young man who helps the Project team Leader works at Marketing Group.

4. The pet food was packaged three months ago. Is it safe to feed a cat with it?

5. When you are designing a new product, you should consult with other members of the Project Team.

6. People who do it must keep the whole information in secret.

7. While we were staying in Milan, we had a chance of meeting our future partners.

8. A defect was found in a package after the product had been already launched.

 

7. If possible, change the relative clause in these sentences to an -ing, past participle or being + past participle clause as appropriate. If it is not possible, write X after the sentence.

Ex.: The people who are being asked to take early retirement are all over the age of 60. ...people being asked to take ,...

 

1. The man who invented the testing program came from China.

2. The Marketing Group representatives who visited us last week have sent us a new detailed description of a marketing's objective that we should take into consideration creating a product.

3. The workers who are being moved to another department all have Master’s degree in engineering.

4. The results of a new product experiments that were carried out a month ago have been checked by the other group.

5. An agreement between the trade union and the Lotta Company has been signed to protect the workers who are being fired all over the country.

6. The secretary scraped through the crowd of people who were hurrying to get to the laboratory.

7. The results of experiment that she wanted to borrow were not available in the laboratory.

8. If you know of anyone who would like to sell shares of the Lotta company, let me know.

9. The company has recently obtained new equipment which will allow far more packages to be produced and more money to be saved.      

      

8. Read the jokes and comment on them using as many participles as you can. Choose any joke and paraphrase it using the present participle and the past participle.

 

- To the optimist, the glass is half full. To the pessimist, the glass is half empty. To the engineer, the glass is twice as big as it needs to be.

- This one compares mechanical and civil engineers:

Question – What's the difference between Mechanical Engineers and Civil Engineers?

Answer – Mechanical Engineers build weapons and Civil Engineers build targets.

- Marketing and engineering have trouble understanding each other: An engineer was leaving the office late one evening when he saw the marketing manager standing in front of a shredder with a piece of paper in his hand.

“Listen,” said the marketing manager, “this is a very sensitive and important document here, and my secretary has gone for the night. Can you make this thing work?”

“Certainly,” said the engineer. He turned the machine on, inserted the paper, and pressed the start button.

“Excellent!” said the marketing manager as his paper disappeared inside the machine. “I just need one copy.”

 

9. Give a short account of something interesting that happened to you once, for example: a difficult journey, an unusual incident in the street, a memorable holiday. Include as many participles as you can.

 

Career Skills: Company Information

 

1. Sometimes we talk about our company's activities in a professional or social situation. Look at these ways of describing what your company does.

 

a. The company is called / It's called (ICI).

b. It's based in (Toronto).

c. It has offices / factories in (Poland).

d. It's a (manufacturing) company.

e. It makes / sells (cars).

f. It employs (250) people

 

2. Match the questions with the phrases a-f above.

 

1. What type of company is it?

2. How many employees does it have?

3. What is the company called? / Who do you work for?

4. What does it do?

5. Where is it based?

6. Where are its factories?

 

3. Work with a partner. Use the information to ask questions about your partner's company. Then answer your partner's questions about your company.

 

Pair A

Company name: SBC Communications

Type of company: manufacturing

Produces: digital radios

Based in: Tokyo

Employee: 200

 

Pair B

Company name: General Foods

Type of company: retail

Sells: sandwiches to office workers

Based in: Paris

Employees: 45

 

Dilemma: Applying for a Quality Improvement Manager Job

 

PROCESS TASK:

Enbridge Inc. is seeking for a quality improvement manager; make up a dialogue when you are applying for a job. Use the information below.

 

Requirements:

- bachelor's degree in a related field, conferred by an accredited college or university;

- 3 to 5 years' experience in a related field;

- experiential knowledge of quality improvement processes, strategic planning and policy development is preferred;

- excellent oral and written skills are required to effectively communicate with all levels of staff;

- potential quality improvement managers should possess the necessary skills required to champion quality through all organizational levels.

 

The Job Description:

Quality improvement managers create, implement and control processes related to products and services. They work to create measurable improvements in all areas of corporate operation. Quality improvement managers may be self-directed or function in a supervisory role.

 

Duties:

- development and implementation of action plans that address quality issues;

- establishment and measurement of standards in accordance with specified guidelines;

- applying communication strategies to identify and approve quality issues corporate-wide;

- preparation and maintenance of quality improvement reports.

Salary

The average median salary for quality improvement managers is about $65,000 yearly.

 

 

Word list

apparent

очевидный, явный, кажущийся

benchmark

стандарт, эталон; критерий

benchmarking

бенчмаркинг, сопоставительный анализ отдельных показателей

consistent

последовательный

continual improvement

непрерывное совершенствование

cost-benefit analysis

анализ экономического эффекта инвестиций

desired outcome

ожидаемый результат

efficiency

эффективность

elimination

устранение

encounter

столкновение; случайная встреча

feedback

обратная связь

flexibility

гибкость

gain

усиление

inherent

присущий

intervention

посредничество; вмешательство

issue

проблема

iterative

повторяющийся

job security

гарантия занятости

kaizen

кайдзен (с яп. "улучшение"; подход к организации производства, заключающийся в пошаговом улучшении качества)

lead time

период внедрения; подготовительно-наладочное время

lucrative

прибыльный

outcome

результат

overburden

перегрузка

process mapping

отображение процесса

prosperity

процветание

reduction

сокращение

relevant

отношение

rigid

жесткий

smoothly

плавно

striving

борьба

to achieve

для достижения

to align

для выравнивания

to distribute

распространять

to execute

выполнять

to impose

навязать

to increase

увеличить

to leverage

усиливать, использовать кредит

to predict

прогнозировать

to reduce

уменьшить

to regard

расценивать; рассматривать; принимать во внимание

to resolve

решить

to strive

стремиться

to validate

утверждать; подтверждать

treatment

обращение, обхождение

unevenness

неравномерность

waste

брак, повреждение; убыток