UNIT 2. Quality Control and Quality Assurance

Reading: Quality Control

Video: Quality Assurance vs. Quality Control

Grammar: Passive Voice

Career Skills: Introducing Others

Dilemma: Quality Assurance Project




Quality control is a system of technical procedures and activities developed and implemented to produce measurements of requisite quality. Quality control procedures include the collection and analysis of blank, duplicate, and spiked samples and standard reference materials to ensure the integrity of analyses and regular inspection of equipment to ensure it is operating properly. Quality assurance activities are more managerial in nature and include assignment of roles and responsibilities to project staff, staff training, development of data quality objectives, data validation, and laboratory audits.





1. Discuss the questions with a partner.


1. What classifications of products quality control do you know?

2. What does reject mean?

3. Do you know any methods of quality control?


2. Read the information about the perspectives on quality. Match the column A with the column B.

Perspectives on Quality

A                                      B

1. Judgmental.

a) Quality is defined as fitness for intended use, or how well the product performs its intended function. If you want an off-road vehicle for camping, a Jeep might suit your needs. If you want a luxury vehicle with lots of features, a Cadillac might better suit your needs.

2. Product-based.

b) From this perspective, a quality product is as useful as a competing product and sold at a lower price, or it offers greater usefulness or satisfaction at a comparable price. If you had a choice between two “thumb drives” and one offered one gigabyte of storage for $39.95 and another offered two gigabytes of storage for $19.95, chances are you would choose the latter.

3. User-based.

c) When referred to as the transcendent definition of quality, it is both absolute and universally recognizable, a mark of uncompromising standards and high achievement. You can't really measure or assess it you just know it when you see it. Lexus and Ritz-Carlton are examples.

4. Value-based.

d) Quality is the desirable outcome of engineering and manufacturing practice, or conformance to specifications. For Coca-Cola, quality is “about manufacturing a product that people can depend on every time they reach for it.”

5. Manufacturing-based.

e) In this view, quality is a function of a specific, measurable variable and differences in quality reflect differences in quantity of a product attribute, such as threads per square inch or pixels per square inch. Bed sheets and LCD high definition televisions are examples.

6. Customer-driven quality.

f) The American National Standards Institute and the American Society for Quality (ASQ) define quality as “the totality of features and characteristics of a product or service that bears on its ability to satisfy given needs [4].” A popular extension of this definition is “quality is meeting or exceeding customer expectations.”




1. You are going to read a text about quality control. Before you read, check that you understand these important words. Match the words to the definitions.


1. to ensure

a) if an activity or situation involves something, that thing is part of it or a result of it

2. to deem

b) something that seems good enough for you, or good enough for a particular situation or purpose

3. dependable

c) to make certain that something will happen properly

4. to involve

d) to successfully control a feeling or problem that prevents you from achieving something

5. satisfactory

e) to completely get rid of something that is unnecessary or unwanted

6. to overcome

f) to think of something in a particular way or as having a particular quality

7. to achieve

g) able to be trusted to do what you need or expect

8. to perform

h) to judge how good, useful, or successful something is

9. to evaluate

i) to do something, especially something difficult or useful

10. to eliminate

j) to successfully complete something or get a good result, especially by working hard


Quality Control


Quality control is a process that is used to ensure a certain level of quality in a product or service. It might include whatever actions a business deems necessary to provide for the control and verification of certain characteristics of a product or service. Most often, it involves thoroughly examining and testing the quality of products or the results of services. The basic goal of this process is to ensure that the products or services that are provided meet specific requirements and characteristics, such as being dependable, satisfactory, safe and fiscally sound.

Companies that engage in quality control typically have a team of workers who focus on testing a certain number of products or observing services being done. The products or services that are examined usually are chosen at random. The goal of the quality control team is to identify products or services that do not meet a company's specified standards of quality. If a problem is identified, the job of a quality control team or professional might involve stopping production or service until the problem has been corrected. Depending on the particular service or product as well as the type of problem identified, production or services might not cease entirely.

Usually, it is not the job of the quality control team or professional to correct quality issues. Typically, other individuals are involved in the process of discovering the cause of quality issues and fixing them. After the problems are overcome and the proper quality has been achieved, the product or service continues production or implementation as usual.

Many types of businesses perform these types of quality checks. Manufacturers of food products, for example, often have employees who test the finished products for taste and other qualities. Clothing manufacturers have workers inspect garments to ensure that they are properly sewn. Service-oriented companies often have representatives who observe the services being performed or who do follow-up checks to ensure that everything was done properly.

Quality control also might involve evaluating people. If a company has employees who don't have adequate skills or training, have trouble understanding directions or are misinformed, the quality of the company's products or services might be diminished. This is especially important for service-oriented companies, because the employees are the product that they provide to customers.

Often, quality control is confused with quality assurance. Though the two are similar, but there are some basic differences. Quality control is concerned with examining the product or service – the end result – and quality assurance is concerned with examining the process that leads to the end result. A company would use quality assurance to ensure that a product is manufactured in the right way, thereby reducing or eliminating potential problems with the quality of the final product.


2. Discuss these questions in pairs.


1. What does quality control process mean?

2. What is the purpose of this process?

3. What actions does it usually involve?

4. Who usually correct quality issues?

5. What is the difference between quality control and quality assurance?




Make a report on one of these topics:


1. Technical quality control.

2. Statistical methods of quality control.

3. Statistical acceptance quality control

4. Methods of statistical process control.


Video: Quality Assurance vs. Quality Control


1. You are going to watch the video about quality assurance and quality control. After watching the film, answer the questions below.




1. What comes first QA or QC?

2.  What does QA prevent?

3.  What does QC prevent?

4.  What is ISO 9001?

5.  What happens if you don’t have controls?


2. Fill in the gaps to make phrases used in the video.


1. QA is __________ oriented.

2. QC is __________ oriented.

3. QA is done __________ the product is created.

4. QC is done __________ or __________ the manufacturing process.

5. QA focuses on __________ of defects.

6. QC focuses on __________ of defects.

7. a process of __________ standards through planning.

8. a process for  __________ standards.


Grammar: Passive Voice


1. Work individually. Study the information below.

The Passive Voice


We form the passive with the verb to be and the past participle of the main verb.

to be + V3(ed)


We use the Passive

- When the person who carries out the action (the agent) is unknown, unimportant or obvious from the context.  

That package was designed a year ago.

- When the action itself is more important than the agent, especially in news headlines, newspaper articles, formal notices, instructions, advertisements, etc.

The new package company was visited by the governor yesterday morning.

- When we want to emphasize the agent.

The design for Coca-Cola was created by my great-great-great father.


By + agent is used to say who or what did the action

With + instrument / material / ingredient is used to say what the agent used, after past participles such as, filled, packed, etc.


Tense/ Verb form



Present Simple

He writes the report.

The report is written (by him).

Present Continuous

He is writing the report.

The report is being written.

Past Simple

He wrote the report yesterday.

The report was written yesterday.

Past Continuous

He was writing the report at that moment yesterday.

The report was being written at that moment yesterday

Present Perfect

He has just written the report.

The report has been written.

Future Simple

He will write the report tomorrow.

The report will be written tomorrow.

Future Perfect

He will have written the report by 10 p.m.

The report will have been written by 10 p.m.


Verbs with two objects have two possible passive structures.


The boss gave the secretary the task.
The boss gave a task to his secretary.

The secretary was given a task.
A task was given to the secretary.


2. Fill in the table with the sentences below.


Tense/ Verb form



Present Simple



Present Continuous



Present Perfect



Past Simple



Past Continuous



Past Perfect



Future Simple



Future Continuous



Future Perfect




1. These containers will be made of the special ploy.

2. We will be improving design of that package all day tomorrow.

3. We transport goods.

4. New packaging materials will have been represented by our firm by 2013.

5. This firm will produce tin cans.

6. The contract was being discussed from 10 till 11 o’clock yesterday.

7. He has just sold two stamps.

8. They will have weighted it by 10 p.m.

9. They delivered materials to the shop.

10. The demand for ready-to-eat fresh food is being increasing.

11. When the manager came the shop assistants had already packed the product.

12. The use of metal containers was patented by Peter Durand.

13. He was solving that problem at that moment yesterday.

14. Flour has been wrapped in paper and put into a bag.

15. She is cooking dinner.

16. Before Peter Durand patented metal containers only glass jars had been used for food preservation.

17. The convenience of the microwave is being enhancing.

18. Tea, coffee, sugar and dried fruits are weighed out in front of the customer.


3. Make simple past passive negatives and questions.

Ex: Juice / preserve/ canning. – Juice was not preserved by canning. Was juice preserved by canning?


1. Lighter cans / replace/ those made of heavy materials..…..…………….…

2. Salmon / usually sell to people living in Africa..…..…………….…

3. Plastic / invent / in 1999..…..…………….…

4. The technology / modify/ engineers..…..…………….…

5. Consumers / worry / price rising ..…..…………….…


4. Ask questions with Who..…..…………….…by?

Ex: - Look at this beautiful package! (develop)  Who was it developed by?


1. Do you know that the method of preserving food in glass appeared in 19th century? (invent) ..…..…………….…

2. Microsoft is one of the prosperous computer firms on the world market. (own) ..…..…………….…

3. That’s a wonderful dress. (made) ..…..…………….…

4. I really like these jars. (produce) ..…..…………….…

5. The Civil War contributed significantly to the popularization of condensed milk. (supply) ..…..…………….…


5. Translate these verbs into Russian. Make up sentences in different Tenses and Voices using these verbs.


to store
to transport
to preserve
to sell
to weight
to wrap

to put
to pack
to deliver
to cook
to produce
to improve

to spoil
to replace
to grant
to contract
to solve


6. Turn the sentences into passive and pay special attention to the Grammar Tense (it should not be changed).

Ex: We must learn to use the Passive.

The Passive must be learned and used.


1. They transport flour in bags.

2. Not so many years ago people salted meat to preserve it.

3. The seller has weighed cereals in front of the customer.

4. My mother is cooking a pie now.

5. Probably, I will write an essay on food conservation.

6. Yesterday, from 5 till 7 o’clock, we were trying to make ice-cream at home.

7. We will be pickling cucumbers the whole day tomorrow.


7. Remake the story, turning all sentences into passive.


This incident happened during the winter break at the end of last year when I was visiting friends. I went to the kitchen to reheat an apple pie. I opened the microwave oven's door and put the pie and punched in 3 minutes. While I was waiting for the pie, I smelled something burning. It was the paper box enwrapping the pie I had forgotten to remove. The smoke filled the house, triggering the fire alarm and I had to spend half an hour with the firemen to do their checkups and switch off the alarm ... so guys, before you microwave food, take off the box first!


8. Define the voice of the verbs in the sentence.


1. These methods are very important.

2. The project is usually made by a group of people.

3. The product will be taken for a test.

4. The staff did their work very well.

5. This goods will be sold in this store.

6. The new solution of this problem is very good.

7. The conference was held in the largest hall.

8. Such questions are never discussed at our meetings.


9. Choose the correct form of the verb to be.


1. These tools ... used very often.

1. is                 2. are               3. be                    4. am


2. This garnet  ... sold in every shop.

1. be                2. am               3. is                     4. are


3. Only French ... spoken in this country.

1. is                 2. am               3. be                    4. are


4. The post ... delivered yesterday.

1. is                 2. was             3. are                   4. were            5. will be


5. My PC ... repaired tomorrow.

1. is                 2. are               3. will be             4. was             5. am


6. That document ... translated by our friend two days ago.

1. is                 2. was             3. were                4. are               5. will be


7. Ourcompany ... founded several years ago.

1. are               2. is                 3. were                4. was             5. will be


8. The Executive Vice President of the company ... elected next year.

1. are               2. is                     3. were            4. shall be


Career Skills: Introducing Others


When we introduce people, it is helpful to say a little about what job the person does or where he works. Look at these ways of introducing people and giving information.


Introduce people
a) This is (Maria White).

b) Pleased/Nice to meet you.

Give information about people
c) He / She's a (design manager).
d) He / She works at (head office).
e) He / She's with (IBM).
f) He / She's in charge of (accounts).


In formal situations, we use personal titles with people's surnames.


1. Which of these names does not include a title? Which two titles are not possible in English?


1. Dr Jones
5. Mr Jones

2. Tony Janes
6. Mrs Smith

3. Miss Smith
7. Ms Smith

4. Mr Dr Janes
8. Jones Mr


2. Match the definitions with the five correct titles above.


a) a woman who is not married;

b) a woman who is married;

c) a woman who is married or unmarried;

d) a man who is married or unmarried;

e) a man or a woman who has a PhD or medical degree.


3. Work in groups of three. Take turns to be the group leader and introduce two new members of the team to each other. Include information about what each person does.

Ex. This is Martina. She's a sales manager. She's with ICI.

This is Juan. He’s a student. He studies English.


Job title:
In charge of:


Dilemma: Quality Assurance Project




The QA Group defines and assigns the tasks, work products and processes that will be performed, such as those listed below:


a) Review products, tools, services, and facilities against requirements, standards and guidelines.

b) Audit project processes for compliance with standards, and established best practices.  Example process evaluation and verification tasks are described in the QA Process, reference (b).

c) Participate in peer reviews and project reviews (technical and management reviews) by providing status on compliance, problem areas, and risks.  Guidance on reviews is contained in references (c), (d) and (e).

d) Suggest methods, standards, guidelines, and tools to be defined for the project and verify they are documented in the project management plan or separate QA plan.

e) Report results of product and/or service evaluations and process audits to the PM, senior management, relevant stakeholders, and the project’s engineering process group (e.g. SEPG) as appropriate.

f) Collect and report metrics on the status of cost and schedule, product evaluations, project quality, and audits.

g) Collect improvement information on the QA processes and establish and maintain a description of the defined process.


Establish and maintain the plan for the QA Process


- Quality objectives, in measurable terms

- Types of test and verification and validation (V&V) activities

- Entry and exit criteria for project lifecycle phases

- Responsibilities of the QA group

- Resource and training requirements for the QA group or function

- Scheduling, budgeting and funding of QA activities

- QA participation in development of project plans, standards, and procedures

- Process evaluations and audits to be performed by QA

- Product and service audits and reviews to be conducted by QA

- Standards and procedures used for QA

- Documenting and tracking noncompliance issues, and the escalation procedure

- Documentation that QA establishes, maintains, and controls over the life of the project through delivery

- Method, audience, and frequency of providing feedback on QA activities



Word list  












в финансовом отношении







measurement of requisite quality

измерение необходимого качества

quality assurance 

гарантия качества

quality control

контроль качества




исправный; правильный; надежный

standard reference materials

стандартные справочные материалы

standard of quality

стандарт качества

technical procedures and activities

технические процедуры и мероприятия

to achieve


to cease


to choose at random

выбрать наугад

to concern


to deem

полагать, думать, считать

to define


to diminish 

уменьшать, убавлять

to eliminate


to engage


to ensure


to evaluate


to inspect


to intend


to involve


to overcome


to perform


to reduce